assalamu alaikum. what is the meaning of murthadh? what are the reasons a muslim become murthadh? how can return to islam from this stage? is normal shahada enough or should add something else with shahada? please answer.
The word Murtad is derived from IRTIDAAD, 'to turn back'. One who gives up Islam willfully for another Faith or becomes a Mulhad (an atheist) (By Marriage or for any other reason) is classified as a Murtad (apostate, renegade, and traitor). (This law does not apply to one who has been compelled by force to change his Faith.)
The apostate is worse than one who is a kaafir in the first place in many aspects. The apostate is not to be put to death immediately after he falls into apostasy, especially if his apostasy happens because of some doubt that arose. Rather he should be asked to repent and he should be offered the opportunity to return to Islam and resolve his doubts, if he has any doubts. Then if he persists in his apostasy after that, he is to be put to death.
Ibn Qudaamah said in al-Mughni, 9/18:
The apostate should not be put to death until he has been asked to repent three times. This is the view of the majority of scholars, including ‘Umar, ‘Ali, ‘Ata’, al-Nakhaii, Maalik, al-Thawri, al-Awzaa’i, Ishaaq and others. Because apostasy comes about because of doubt, and cannot be dispelled in an instant. Time should be allowed for the person to rethink the matter, and the best length of time is three days.
The saheeh Sunnah indicates that it is essential to put the apostate to death.
Al-Bukhaari (6922) narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever changes his religion, put him to death.”
Al-Bukhaari (6484) and Muslim (1676) narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “It is not permissible to shed the blood of a Muslim who bears witness that there is no god except Allaah and that I am the Messenger of Allaah, except in one of three cases: a soul for a soul (i.e., in the case of murder); a previously-married person who commits zina; and one who leaves his religion and separates from the main body of the Muslims.”
Islam does not permit force to bring any one into its religion. The Holy Quran declares: "Let there be no compulsion in religion" (Surah Baqarah, Verse 256). Islam places no restrictions on any one's Faith. "And say: '(This) is the Truth from your Lord; so let him who wishes believe and let him who wishes disbelieve . . .'" (Surah Al-Kahf, Verse 29). But any Muslim who leaves his Faith willfully is regarded as a traitor. He shall be declared a Murtad, a renegade. He is not to be trusted by the Community.
. The attitude Islam adopts towards a Murtad is that if he dies or is killed, Muslims are not allowed to bath or bury him in their cemetery or to offer prayers for him. This is declared in the Holy Quran in Surah Taubah, Verse 84: "Nor do thou ever pray for any of them that dies nor stand at his grave: for they rejected Allah and his Apostle, and died in a state of perverse rebellion. " Therefore, a Muslim should not fraternise or befriend a Murtad.